ERC3643 | All About Token Standard For RWA Tokenization

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Written by
Shivani Tripathi
Published on
May 15, 2024

Blockchain technology has made its way beyond cryptocurrencies and is being implemented in the world of 'RWA tokenization'. There are several ERC standards, each serving a different purpose & use case. ERC (also known as "Ethereum Request for Comment") are proposals for technical specifications within the Ethereum ecosystem. This blog article will explore the fundamentals of the ERC3643 standard, which represents a significant development in the blockchain space and is known for handling royalties with RWA tokens. If you are curious to learn all about the ERC3643 standard, you're in the right place. 

What is the ERC3643 Protocol?

Blockchain technology is clearly changing how we perceive real-world assets. The token standard we’re discussing today makes assets easy to trade, keeps things safe, and follows the rules. The ERC3643 standard, also known as the "Royalties Standard" or "T-Rex" is a modification of ERC-20 and is designed to bring compliance to RWA (Real-World Assets) tokenization. Using this token standard, assets are empowered enough to open doors to new ways of investing and trading, making it accessible to everyone.  

Understanding the Functionality of ERC3643 Token Standard

This token standard works through interconnected components designed for the compliant transfer and management of security tokens. Let's explore how each component functions within the ERC3643 standard framework:

Identity Contract: 

ERC3643 is the Identity Contract, which manages the identity of each user and stores all associated claims. This contract adheres to the ERC725 standard, ensuring security and interoperability. Users' identities are securely stored and managed within this contract, providing a foundation for trust and reliability in the token ecosystem.

Claim Topic Registry Contract: 

This component is an administrator for the various claim topics that can be added to a user's identity under the contract. Think of it as a library of potential claims, providing a structured method for adding and managing attributes of users' identities. By organizing claim topics, this contract enhances the efficiency and organization of identity management within the system.

Claim Issuer Registry Contract: 

Similar to a whitelist of trusted claim issuers, this contract authorizes the entities authorized to issue claims about users' identities. It ensures that only verified and trusted entities can affirm the identity of a user, enhancing the security and credibility of the identity verification process. By maintaining a registry of trusted issuers, this contract helps prevent fraudulent claims and identity misrepresentation.

Basic Compliance Contract: 

Serving as a gatekeeper, this contract verifies the compliance of user identities before they can participate in transactions. It checks whether an identity is compliant based on the claims it makes, ensuring that only compliant identities are allowed to engage in token transactions. This contract plays a critical role in upholding regulatory compliance standards within the token ecosystem, promoting transparency and legal adherence.

Identity Registry Contract: 

This contract serves as a central repository for all identities within the system, functioning akin to a phone book. It maintains a comprehensive record of users' identities, facilitating easy lookups and verification when needed. By providing a centralized location for identity management, this contract streamlines the process of verifying users' identities and ensures the efficient operation of the token ecosystem.

Difference Between ERC-20 and ERC3643 

ERC3643 differs from the ERC-20 standard in the following ways: 

ERC3643: Expanding the Tokenization Horizon

The ERC3643 protocol may appear akin to its predecessor, ERC20. Both adhere to a familiar interface, facilitating seamless integration within the Ethereum ecosystem. However, ERC3643 transcends the confines of ERC20 by introducing tokenization-specific functionalities that revolutionize asset representation.

Enhanced Features of ERC3643:

The hallmark of the ERC3643 standard lies in its advanced features tailored for asset tokenization. Unlike ERC20, ERC3643 incorporates compliance checks, identity management, and fractional ownership representation. These additions empower ERC3643 tokens to mirror real-world assets faithfully, ensuring regulatory adherence and identity verification.

ERC-20 Tokens: Versatility in Digital Currencies:

In contrast, ERC20 tokens excel in their versatility, primarily serving as digital currencies and utility tokens. Their simplicity and widespread adoption have made ERC20 tokens a cornerstone of the Ethereum ecosystem. However, they lack the specialized functionalities essential for representing real-world assets with precision.

Unlocking the Potential of ERC3643:

The differentiation between the ERC3643 vs ERC20 token standards is pivotal in understanding their respective roles. While ERC-20 tokens are mainly used for digital currencies and utility tokens, ERC3643 emerges as a sophisticated upgrade, catering specifically to asset tokenization needs.

Seamless Conversion of Real-World Assets:

By integrating compliance checks and identity management, ERC3643 facilitates the seamless conversion of real-world assets into tokens. This transformative capability opens ways for blockchain technology to disrupt traditional industries while ensuring regulatory compliance and transparency. 

ERC3643: Bridging the Gap Between Blockchain and Real-World Assets

Real-world assets contain a broad spectrum of tangible entities, including but not limited to real estate, art, commodities, and intellectual property. These assets inherently possess value and have traditionally been subject to governance by conventional systems and regulations. ERC3643 acts as a revolutionary framework for tokenizing RWAs on the Ethereum blockchain. Unlike purely digital assets, RWAs present unique challenges related to compliance, ownership verification, and fractionalization. ERC3643 addresses these challenges by introducing specialized features tailored to the intricacies of tangible assets.

Key Functions of ERC3643 in Handling RWAs:

  • Compliance Checks: ERC3643 incorporates mechanisms for ensuring regulatory compliance when tokenizing RWAs. This includes adherence to jurisdictional rules and legal requirements, thereby mitigating the legal risks associated with asset tokenization.
  • Identity Management: Identity verification is essential for validating ownership rights and ensuring the authenticity of tokenized RWAs. ERC3643 enables robust identity management systems to authenticate asset owners and maintain trust within the ecosystem.
  • Fractional Ownership: RWAs often have high entry barriers, making them inaccessible to retail investors. ERC3643 facilitates fractional ownership, allowing investors to own a portion of valuable assets without requiring substantial capital, thereby democratizing access to investment opportunities.

Use Cases of ERC3643 with RWAs:

Real Estate Tokenization:

One of the primary use cases of ERC3643 is the tokenization of real estate properties. By representing physical properties as digital tokens, ERC3643 enables fractional ownership, allowing investors to purchase and trade fractions of high-value properties. This opens up opportunities for diversification and liquidity in the real estate market while streamlining property transactions and reducing barriers to entry for investors.

Art and Collectibles:

ERC3643 facilitates the tokenization of art pieces and collectibles, transforming them into tradable digital assets. Art enthusiasts can now invest in fractional ownership of renowned artworks, allowing for broader participation in the art market. Tokenization enhances transparency and provenance tracking, reducing the risk of art fraud and forgery.

Commodities Tokenization:

Physical commodities like gold, silver, and agricultural products can be tokenized using ERC3643. By digitizing commodity ownership, ERC3643 enables efficient trading and liquidity in commodity markets. Investors can diversify their portfolios by owning fractions of various commodities, mitigating the risks associated with traditional commodity investments.

Intellectual Property:

ERC3643 extends its utility to the tokenization of intellectual property assets such as patents, copyrights, and trademarks. Creators and inventors can tokenize their intellectual property rights, enabling transparent and decentralized trading on the blockchain. This democratizes access to intellectual property investments and facilitates the monetization of creative works.

Fractional Ownership in Venture Capital:

Venture capital firms can leverage ERC3643 to tokenize equity in private companies and startups. By representing ownership stakes as digital tokens, ERC3643 enables fractional ownership of early-stage ventures, allowing retail investors to participate in the high-growth potential of startups. This democratizes access to venture capital investments and fosters innovation in the startup ecosystem.

Supply Chain Financing:

ERC3643 can be utilized to tokenize physical assets within supply chains, enhancing transparency and efficiency in supply chain financing. By representing inventory, equipment, and other assets as digital tokens, ERC3643 facilitates collateralization and financing throughout the supply chain, optimizing working capital management and reducing financing costs.

Role of ERC3643 in Decentralized Finance

ERC3643 (also called "Decentralized Identity Protocol") has a vital role in decentralized finance (DeFi) by addressing identity management within blockchain networks. In the field of decentralized finance (DeFi), identity management is crucial for various reasons:

KYC/AML Compliance: 

In the industry of decentralized finance, adherence to regulatory standards like Know Your Customer (KYC) and Anti-Money Laundering (AML) regulations is crucial. ERC3643, the Decentralized Identity Protocol, provides a structured framework for securely managing and verifying user identities on blockchain networks. By implementing ERC3643, DeFi platforms can establish robust KYC/AML processes, ensuring compliance with regulatory requirements. This not only fosters trust between users and platforms but also opens doors for institutional investors and broader mainstream adoption of DeFi services.

Risk Management: 

DeFi platforms often face inherent risks associated with fraudulent activities and identity theft. Effective risk management strategies are essential for safeguarding user assets and maintaining platform integrity. ERC3643 plays a vital role in risk management by enabling DeFi projects to verify and authenticate user identities securely. By leveraging this protocol, platforms can assess the risk associated with each user, implement appropriate risk mitigation measures, and enhance overall platform security.

User Experience: 

Simplifying the onboarding process is key to driving user adoption and retention in DeFi. Cumbersome identity verification procedures can deter potential users and hinder platform growth. ERC3643 streamlines the user onboarding experience by standardizing identity verification processes across different DeFi applications and protocols. This standardization reduces friction during the registration and login process, enhances accessibility for users of all backgrounds, and ultimately contributes to a more seamless and user-friendly DeFi ecosystem.


Interoperability between different DeFi applications and protocols is essential for the growth and scalability of the decentralized finance ecosystem. However, achieving seamless interoperability requires standardized protocols for identity management. ERC3643 facilitates interoperability by providing a common framework for managing decentralized identities. This allows users to access various DeFi services and applications without the need for repeated identity verification, thereby promoting efficiency, accessibility, and network effects within the DeFi ecosystem.


Security and privacy are paramount concerns in DeFi, where users entrust platforms with sensitive financial information and assets. ERC3643 addresses these concerns by providing a robust framework for secure identity management on blockchain networks. By implementing ERC3643, DeFi platforms can ensure that user identities are protected against unauthorized access, data breaches, and identity theft. This enhances user confidence, fosters trust in the platform, and strengthens the overall security posture of the DeFi ecosystem, thereby enabling safer and more reliable financial transactions on decentralized platforms.

Final Words

As discussed in this blog, ERC3643 enables secure and efficient identity verification processes. Its role in facilitating the tokenization of RWAs becomes increasingly significant, as it provides a foundation for establishing trust, transparency, and efficiency in RWA tokenization processes. It also enables DeFi platforms to comply with regulatory requirements, mitigate risks, streamline user experiences, promote interoperability, and enhance overall platform security. This token standard is set to make a big impact on the future of finance, paving the way for new ideas and making the financial system fairer for everyone.